In a paper currently under review, they have determined the key signaling molecules that link acute tension to the improvement of glutamate receptors and operating memory. ‘Furthermore,’ noted Yan, ‘we’ve discovered that chronic tension suppresses the transmitting of glutamate in the prefrontal cortex of man rodents – which is opposite to the facilitating effect of acute tension – and that estrogen receptors in female rodents make them more resilient to chronic tension than male rats. ‘All these studies should bring fresh insights in to the complex actions of stress in different circumstances which may be relevant to humans in the future,’ she said..These transgenic mice develop advanced PTCs that closely resemble human poorly differentiated PTCs. Mabel Ryder, MD, and co-workers from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Malignancy Center and the Sloan-Kettering Institute used BRAFV600E transgenic mice to review the effects of tumor-linked macrophages , a kind of white blood cell, on PTC initiation and progression. In cancers, TAMs are versatile and will either support or inhibit cancer tumor progression. In PTCs, BRAF activation in the thyroid is accompanied by increased levels of colony stimulating element 1, which stimulates the recruitment of TAMs to the thyroid.