Two of 18 samples experienced TP53 mutations that change amino acids in the p53 protein . One sample acquired an intronic mutation in TP53, and for 3 samples , no results were obtained. No mutations were determined in exon 2 of CDKN2A. ERK phosphorylation was assessed in 10 cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas or keratoacanthomas and the encompassing regular epithelia and was discovered to end up being higher in these lesions than in the normal epidermis . In the validation set, RAS mutations were noted in 8 of 14 samples : 4 in HRAS and 4 in KRAS . In the 4 samples with sufficient surrounding regular skin to perform RAS mutational analyses, no mutations had been detected .But that move might not be enough, because the publisher Hindawi found out this past spring. Although Hindawi doesn’t let authors recommend reviewers because of their manuscripts, it made a decision to examine the peer-review records for manuscripts submitted in 2013 and 2014 for possible fraud. The peer-review procedure found in Hindawi’s journals depends primarily on the expertise of its editorial board members and the guest editors of special issues, who are in charge of supervising the overview of submitted manuscripts.5 Because the peer reviewers chosen by the guest editors were not subject to any kind of independent verification, editors themselves could undermine the process in much the same way that authors or third-party agencies did elsewhere: by creating fake reviewer identities and addresses from which they submitted reviews that are positive endorsing publication.